JuneÂ 20, 1912 – Freethought/anarchist activist and writer Voltairine de Cleyre dies in Chicago, aged 45. Born in 1866 in Michigan and named after 18th century philosopher Voltaire, she was an atheist from an early age: her parents sent her to a Catholic school in Ontario in hopes of a better education. She tried to run away by swimming to Michigan. Really. She became active in the freethought movement, but refocused her activism towards anarchism in the aftermath of the Haymarket Riot. She described herself as an “anarchist without adjectives,” contrasting herself to other contemporary communist and socialist anarchistsÂ like Emma Goldman.
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