June 22 in freethought history…

June 22, 1633 – Galileo condemned by the Roman Inquisition for heresy for publishing his helicentric model of the universe, in contradiction to the Catholic Church’s geocentric model. He was forced to recant and sentenced to house imprisonment for the rest of his life.

June 22, 1887 – British rationalist and humanist Julian Huxley (grandson of Thomas “Darwin’s Bulldog” Huxley and brother of Aldous “Brave New World” Huxley) is born in London. Huxley was knighted in 1958 and, among other things,  the first president of the British Humanist Association and the American Humanist Association’s 1962 Humanist of the Year.  He was an evolutionary biologist, and a prominent eugenicist, serving as president of the British Eugenics Society from 1959-1962.

June 22, 1942 – Congress officially recognizes “I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.” as the official version of the Pledge. The phrase “under God” would not be inserted into the Pledge until 1954, where it has remained.

 

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