December 29, 1859 – RationalistÂ and Ethical Culture leader Mangasar Magurditch (“M. M.”) Mangasarian is born in the Ottoman Empire, in what is now Turkey. He was educated in a Western-style Christian school in Constantinople and at Princeton University. Mangasarian was pastor of a Presbyterian church in Philadelphia before drifting away from orthodox religion, first as pastor of his own standalone church, then as a leader in Felix Adler’s new Ethical Culture Society, and finally as founder of the rationalist Independent Religious Society of Chicago. He wrote numerous books, most notably The Truth about Jesus–Is He a Myth? and The Bible Unveiled. Mangasarian died in California in 1943, aged 83.
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